Atmospheric pollution from automobile emissions (1) Hydrocarbons (CH): The cH emitted by automobiles accounts for 48% of the total emissions. Although CH is not directly harmful to human health, it can generate harmful photochemical smog, which can cause harm to the human body. Indirect damage. (2) Carbon monoxide (CO): 80% of CO in modern cities is emitted by car combustion. The combination of CO and heme produces carboxyhemoglobin (COHB). The binding capacity of heme and CO is 200 to 30 times the binding capacity of hate, which greatly reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of heme and causes people to be hypoxic. (3) Nitrogen oxide compounds (N0x): Mainly NO and N compounds. Nitrogen compounds emitted by automobiles account for more than 4% of the total nitrogen compound emissions in the atmosphere. NO: Destroy cotton, linen, nylon and other materials, corrode bronze materials, and damage plant growth. The most serious is that it can cause acute respiratory diseases in humans, and it is the main cause of photochemical smog, and it can also cause acid rain. (4) Dust particles: Automobile emissions account for more than 4% of total emissions. The particulates produced by the combustion of leaded gasoline are harmful to humans. They can cause numbness of human brain nerves and chronic kidney disease, and even death in severe cases.
Car noise pollution 70% of modern urban noise comes from transportation, and traffic noise mainly comes from the driving, vibration and horn sound of transportation. The review sound of modern automobile environmental protection technology is generally higher than that of foreign countries. The noise level of Beijing, Tianjin, Nanjing, Hangzhou and other cities are all above 80 decibels. Electromagnetic pollution The impact of automobile electromagnetic pollution on the surrounding environment is mainly manifested in the high-voltage ignition in the ignition system, the electric spark energy is very large, and the electromagnetic radiation generated interferes with the radio communication, radio broadcasting and television in the driving position of the car. GB14O3-192 stipulates that the bandwidth of electromagnetic interference intensity of automobiles should be in the range of 75-400HZ. Other contaminated soil should include rubber and plastic products in waste parts, waste lubricating grease, freon produced by air conditioning, etc.
Environmental protection vehicle 1. Electronically controlled injection vehicle: developed in the 1970s due to the strict restrictions on vehicle emissions in Western countries, a low fuel consumption, less pollution microcomputer controlled combustion process is an environmentally friendly and energy-saving vehicle. Its basic principle is that the microcomputer (ECU) accurately controls and selects the best ignition and fuel injection timing and fuel injection volume through analysis, calculation, and judgment based on various signals from various sensors. It was popularized in the West in the 1970s and 1980s, but it was not until the 1990s that China became aware of these problems due to the deterioration of the environment.
2. Electric cars: namely electric vehicles. This kind of car appeared earlier than the petrol car, but it was soon put into the cold palace by people. It was not until the 1990s that electric vehicles were regained based on human understanding of the importance of environmental protection and sustainable development strategies. The biggest advantage of electric vehicles is that they are noiseless and emit no exhaust gas. Its development mainly depends on the batteries. At present, the most popular thing for mankind is the nickel-metal hydride battery, which is called green energy by the automotive industry.
The “RAVALEV” electric vehicle developed by Toyota in Japan is a successful example. The car can travel 220KM on a single charge, and the maximum speed can reach 120KM per hour. However, the K-ion battery developed by General Motors in the United States is more advanced and is a single-charge car. It can run continuously for 6OOKM. The electric vehicles currently on the market are mainly electric-fuel hybrid vehicles, that is, vehicles are driven by electricity at low and medium speeds, and fuel-powered at high speeds and heavy loads.
3. Solar car: A solar car is a car that uses a battery loaded car that converts solar energy into electric energy as a driving power source. What marks the level of solar vehicles is the photoelectric energy conversion efficiency. At present, the international advanced level of conversion is 21.2%. The solar cell made by the American company “Piyange” uses a kind of arsenic compound to convert with the use of light concentrators. The efficiency can reach 37%. In 1996, the BS9632 “China One” solar-powered electric car successfully developed by a research institute in Lianyungang, Jiangsu passed the appraisal in Nanjing. The car can travel 150-20KM on one charge, and the maximum speed can reach 80-88KM per hour. The biggest advantage of this type of car is that it has no exhaust gas pollution, and the energy is free and inexhaustible, but its shortcomings are also prominent, that is, the car must “rely on the sky for food.”
4. Hydrogen-powered vehicles: Hydrogen-powered vehicles are powered by hydrogen. During the combustion process of hydrogen, only C5 and water vapor are produced. As a secondary energy source, hydrogen is rich in resources and can be cycled indefinitely without causing environmental pollution. Its combustion efficiency is high, reaching 60-80%, while fuel oil The thermal conversion efficiency is only 25-30%. In the 21st century that has just arrived, hydrogen energy will be developed and utilized on a large scale, and hydrogen-powered vehicles will also be given priority for development.
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