Titanium is a chemical element that is a silver-white transition metal with the chemical symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It is characterized by light weight, high strength, good metallic luster and good corrosion resistance (including seawater, nitrohydrochloric acid and chlorine). Due to its stable chemistry, good heat resistance, low temperature resistance, acid resistance, alkali resistance, high strength and low density, it is called “spatial metal”. In 1791 William Gregor discovered titanium in Cornwall, England. Named Titan in Greek mythology of Klaproth.
Titanium orthopedic transplant
Titanium is considered a rare metal because it is difficult to disperse and extract. But its relative existence is 1/10 of all elements. Titanium ore mainly contains ilmenite and rutile and is widely distributed in the earth’s crust and lithosphere. Titanium is also found in most organisms, rocks, bodies of water and soil. To extract titanium from the main ore, the Kroll or Hunter method must be used. The most common titanium and titanium dioxide compounds are used to produce white pigments. Other compounds include titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) (as a catalyst for the production of smoke or air letters) and titanium trichloride (TiCl3) (for the production of catalytic polypropylene).
Titanium can be alloyed with other elements such as iron, aluminum, vanadium or molybdenum to form high strength light alloys. It has a wide range of applications in every aspect. These include aerospace (jet engines, missiles, spacecraft), military and industrial applications (chemical and petroleum products, desalination and papermaking) automobiles, agricultural foods, pharmaceuticals (prostheses, orthopedic implants, dental instruments, fillers). ), Kitchen utensils, sporting goods, jewelry, mobile phones, etc.
The two most useful properties of titanium are its corrosion resistance and its highest weight-to-weight ratio in metal. In the non-alloyed state, the strength of titanium is comparable to that of some steels, but 45% lighter. There are two isotopes and five isotopes of the chemical and physical properties of titanium, 46Ti (8.25%), 47Ti (7.44%), 48Ti (73.72%), 49Ti (5.41%), 50Ti (5.18%). It resembles zirconium because it has electrons of the same valence and belongs to the same family in the periodic table.
Titanium reserves are the fourth largest in the Earth’s crust after iron, aluminum and magnesium. Low specific conductivity, high specific strength, good toughness, fatigue resistance, corrosion resistance, low thermal conductivity, low low temperature resistance, its commercial value was recognized in the 1950s, aerospace and Used in high-tech fields such as aerospace. With the continued promotion of industries such as chemicals, petroleum, electricity, seawater desalination, construction and daily necessities, titanium is gaining more and more attention and is called “modern metal” and “strategic metal”, defense equipment. It is an important strategic material that is indispensable for improving the level of.
There are two important indicators for measuring the size of the titanium industry in a country.
Titanium sponge production and titanium production, titanium sponge production reflects raw material production capacity, and titanium production reflects deep processing capacity. The titanium industry forms five major producers and consumers in China, the United States, independent states, Japan and Europe. China’s titanium industry has been gradually developed with experimental research, fixed-point layout of industrial production, application promotion and continuous technological progress, which began in 1954. In particular, since the beginning of the 21st century, China’s titanium industry has made great strides, driven by national needs and driven by reform and openness.
Titanium golf club
2016 is the first year of China’s “15th Five-Year Plan.” This year, China’s production of titanium sponge and titanium processed materials continues to grow by inertia. According to statistics from the Titanium, Zirconium and Niobium Branches of the China Nonferrous Metal Industry Association, the total production of 14 Chinese sponge titanium producers in 2016 was 74,952 tons, an increase of 12.4% over the same period last year. According to statistics from 30 companies, China produced a total of 60,962 tonnes of titanium processed material in 2016, an increase of 33.0%.
The strength of titanium is high, and the tensile strength of pure titanium can reach 180 kg / mm2. Some steels are stronger than machining titanium alloys, but titanium alloys have higher specific strength (tensile strength and density ratio) than higher grade steels. Titanium alloys have excellent heat resistance, low temperature toughness, and fracture toughness, so they are used as aircraft engine parts and rocket / missile structural parts.
- Titanium alloys can also be used as fuel and oxidant storage tanks and high pressure containers.
- Titanium alloys have been used in the manufacture of automatic rifles, mortar substrates, and shellless launch tubes.
- In the petroleum industry, various containers, reactors, heat exchangers, distillation columns, pipes, pumps, valves, etc. are mainly used.
- Titanium can be used as electrodes and power plant capacitors and as an environmental pollution control device.
- Titanium-nickel shape memory alloys are widely used in instrumentation.
- In medicine, titanium can be used as an artificial bone and various instruments.
- Titanium is also an oxygen scavenger for steelmaking and is a component of stainless steel and alloy steel.
- Titanium dioxide is a good raw material for pigments and coatings.
- Titanium carbide and titanium hydride are new types of cemented carbide materials.
- Titanium nitride is similar to gold and is widely used for decoration.
- Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used in the aerospace industry and are known as “space metals”. It is also widely used in the fields of shipbuilding, chemical industry, machine parts manufacturing, telecommunications equipment, and cemented carbide.
- Furthermore, since the titanium alloy has good compatibility with the human body, it can also be used as an artificial bone.
Titanium corrosion resistance
Zirconium nitrate and zirconium hydride are used in the nuclear industry and are used as corrosion resistant chemicals under high temperature and pressure, but their reactivity is second only to sodium in solution.
Next, it was found that titanium repels zirconium nitrate by adding an active zirconium hydride solution to the titanium hydroxide solution.
In this figure, it can be seen that the upper zirconium nitrate and the lower titanium hydroxide are clearly layered.
We know that the density of titanium hydroxide is lower than that of zirconium nitrate, but it still maintains significant delamination and remains on top of zirconium nitrate, demonstrating the corrosion resistance of titanium.
Experiments have shown that titanium does not erode on the seabed for 20-50 years.
- In case of contact with skin: Remove contaminated clothing and wash skin thoroughly with soap and water.
- In case of contact with eyes (powder): Lift the eyelids and rinse with running water or saline. Treatment.
- Inhalation (powder): Breathe quickly from a place with fresh air. Keep the airway open. If you have difficulty breathing, give oxygen. If breathing stops, give artificial respiration immediately. Treatment.
- If swallowed: Drink plenty of water and cause vomiting. Treatment.
- Respiratory protection: May be exposed to dust and must wear a self-priming filter.
- Eye protection (powder): Wear safety glasses.
- Physical protection: Penetration gas protective clothing.
- Hand protectors: Wear protective gloves when infiltrated.
- Other protective measures: Smoking, eating and drinking are prohibited in the workplace. Take a shower after work. Please be careful about personal hygiene.
- Leakage measures: Isolation of contaminated areas and restricted access. Turn off the fire. It is recommended that first aid personnel wear gas masks (full face masks) and protective clothing. Do not touch the spill directly.
- Small leaks: Avoid dust and collect in a dry, clean, covered container with a clean shovel. Recycle Recycle.
- Many leaks: covered with plastic sheet and canvas. To reuse the transfer, use a non-sparking tool.
Dangerous combustion products: titanium oxide.
- Fire extinguishing method: Extinguish with dry powder and dry sand. Do not use water, foam or carbon dioxide. In the event of high temperatures or strong combustion, rescue with water can cause an explosion.
- Acute toxicity: Titanium, titanium dioxide and titanium carbide are less toxic. Rats were cannulated once with 20-50 mg of titanium dioxide and rabbits were injected with 400 mg with no lung-specific reaction. Subacute and chronic toxicity: Pulmonary fibrosis was observed only in rats 6 and 12 months after intratracheal injection of titanium hydride. Rats inhaled TiO2 dust twice daily for 5 days for 13 days. Seven months after inhalation stopped, there was no pathological reaction in the lungs. However, repeated inhalation of titanium dioxide resulted in fibrosis and eosinophil infiltration in guinea pigs. Intratracheal injection of titanium metal did not cause pulmonary fibrosis. Mild pulmonary fibrosis was observed after a single injection of titanium hydride, titanium carbide, titanium boride and titanium nitride into the rat trachea. In addition, mild fibrosis was also observed in rats inhaled with titanium hydride for 16 months.
- Metabolism: The human body consumes about 300 micrograms of titanium per day, most of which is excreted in the faeces, about 3% of which is absorbed by the blood. Titanium that enters the body accumulates in the spleen, adrenal glands, striatum, lungs, skin, and liver. Titanium absorbed in the body is excreted mainly through urine. The titanium concentration in normal human plasma is about 3 μg / dl, and the titanium concentration in urine is about 10 μg / L.
- Poisoning mechanism: Insoluble titanium, such as titanium, titanium oxide, and titanium carbide, has low toxicity, low oral absorption, and is non-toxic. There is no pathological response to titanium implants. Inhalation of titanium insoluble compounds. There is no significant damage to the lungs, resulting in minimal fibrosis. Prolonged feeding of animals with titanium-containing drinking water did not affect growth and development and did not develop tumors.
- Carcinogenicity: Intramuscular injection of titanium metal dissolved in trioctide results in an increase in fibrosarcoma and lymphosarcoma. Organic tin injection, injection site fibrosarcoma, liver cancer and spleen malignant lymphoma. Titanium blocks were not carcinogenic and no tumor cells appeared after the patient assembled the titanium prosthesis for 2 weeks.
- Explosion risk: This product is flammable and irritating.
- Inflow route: inhalation, ingestion.
- Artificial harm:Inhalation can irritate the upper respiratory tract and cause coughing, chest tightness or pain. There was no change in the lungs of workers who inhaled titanium dioxide dust over a long period of time. During the production of titanium metal, exposure to titanium tetrachloride and its hydrolysis products has an irritating effect on the eye and upper respiratory tract mucosa. Chronic effects lead to chronic bronchitis. TiO 2 has been used as a skin protectant for flash burns and no contact dermatitis, allergies or percutaneous absorption have been found. Titanium Titanium Nitride sputtering and inhalation of titanium titanate and titanium chloride can cause skin burns and scarring, as well as pharyngeal, vocal cord and tracheal mucosal congestion at 100 ° C. Scar formation leads to scarring in the throat.Titanium Short-term exposure to titanium chloride can cause conjunctivitis and keratitis. In addition, inhalation of titanium tetrachloride may cause intrabronchial polyps to spread.
- Processing principle:After touching titanium tetrachloride, wipe the skin with a soft paper or cloth as soon as possible. It is then rinsed with water to prevent the release of large amounts of heat and hydrochloric acid from titanium tetrachloride in water, exacerbating the extent of the burn and causing it to swell. Inhalation of titanium tetrachloride should immediately inhale a 5% sodium bicarbonate solution to neutralize the hydrochloric acid produced by the hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride. Inhale oxygen and keep your breathing open.Remain quietly, reduce oxygen consumption early to give enough glucocorticoids, give secondary infections and anti-bronchospasms, antibiotics to prevent sputum symptomatic treatment. Close observation to prevent pulmonary edema.